Michail Pokrass (Samara, Russia)


-In: III Miedzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowo-Metodyczna "Uz,dolnienia Intelektualne i Tw'orcz,e Problemy. Konsepcje. Perspektywy". Warszawa-Konstancin, 19-21 maja 1997. BORGIS Ltd. Widawnictwa Medyczne i O'swiatowe.

    Creativity or Desease - we haven't seen another alterna-tive to a suffering.
    Working out a programme of setting free the teenager's creative initiative we took into account the following simple premises.
     1. Firstly, a man is not only a "Homo sapiens", that is a thinking human being, his specific feature is that he is a "Homo moralis" or a moral human being.
     2. Life, health and desease, vitality of the organism -the whole human energy is in a constant bondage with unreali-zed moral impulses or a moral feeling.
     3. A moral feeling is an intermediary between the world of feelings and the values of the other person, the human so-ciety and the interior regulation and energy of a particular person.
     4. A man moulds his personality under the influence of moral stereotypes, really existing in culture and in his soci-al environement, and very often they are not realized and ref-lected thoroughly in contemporary social consciousness.     These stereotypes are often hostile to a contemporary man and expel any kind of creativity.     In our report we tried to show the essence and the cha-racter of influence that the most important of these stereoty-pes produce on both a child's and an adult's existence and creative activity, for exemple: "the absence of the cult of initiative in a society", "the everlasting damnation of a wo-men's initiative", "men's morality", "the worship of a suffe-ring", "the fear of a human egoizm", "the opposition of "spi-rit" to body"... (5).
     5. Unrealized morals and manners, feelings, tastes, ulte-rior people's likings influence the moulding of a child's per-sonality more than all their words, slogans and obvious deeds. We "infect" our children with what we have ourselves: the hap-py ones - with happiness, the unhappy ones, we forcibly hamper our children's psycological moral development, hand them down our misfortune as a habit.
     6. The moulding of a personality goes on in a process of active assimilation by a person of this or that culture. The way a man shapes himself depends on how free his inner initiative is. The man whose initiave is depressed can forever be nobody else but an imitator of a man (8).
     7. Imitation is a necessary means of active assimilation by a person of a human culture. Being unrealized and irrespon-sible, imitation can be the reason and the display of a halt in moral and psycologycal developement (5,8).
    The definite difference between psycologycal ages of free developement and analogous "ages of imitation" as a halt of this developement - infantilism - is being reported in our work. Alongside with this, criteria of diagnostics and self-diagnostics of the moral-psycologycal age and the age of a halt in moral and psycologycal development are being set out (3,4,5).
     8. Together with the choice of developement or imitatoin the man also chooses one of the two main variants of shaping consciousness as "a complex of socially important activi-tes" (7). One of them works as an instrument of self-realizati-on, which favours the man's insertion in a social environment. The other only imitates its main intermediary function of a misinterpreted social interest,it works as an instrument of a man's forcible submission to a "hostile", ignoring his inte-rests, society, as an instrument to restrain everything indi-vidual, spontanious and creative (5,7,8).
     9. The way a man appropriates his parents' characteris-tics, their interaction or ignoring each other opposition inf-luences the style of all the man's choices, on his attitude towards his personal characteristics and to the whole world.The parents mutual understanding becomes the basis to friendly relashionships of both the conscious and the unconscious, of all person's characteristic features: maternal, paternal, uni-versal and most individual, new and old ones. It becomes that very first training which forever provides a creative way of life, open to the experience, initiative and everything new ( ).     The abovestated understanding of the problem determines the directions of psychotherapeutic activities (4,5,6,7) and a spe-cial interest to the organization of the work with macro- and microsocial environment of a teenager: teachers, parents, mo-ral and psycologocal popularization, addressed to the society, the work in the teenagers' groups.     But the first task is turned to be the task to find and train a psychotherapeutic specialist, who is in love with the world, with himself and with the other person, that is who is living creatively. The programme of training such speci-alists which was worked out by me has been carried out in Kui-byshev (now Samara) Region since 1985.     The time is happy and full of paradoxes. Everything has been mixed up. We choose moral bases which are to determine our life and the life of the following generations. What shall we save? What shall we change?...

Literature & 1997-2000:

    Зурабашвили А.Д. "Проблемные вопросы клинической патоперсонологии шизофрении". В кн."Шестой Всесоюзный съезд невро-патологов и психиатров, том 3. Москва. 1975.
    Зурабашвили А.Д. "Актуальные проблемы персонологии и психиатрии", Тбилиси "Медниереба", 1970.
    Покрасс М.Л. "Социально-психологические проблемы заикающегося и логопеда". В кн.:"Использование комплексной системы устойчивой нормализации речи заикающихся". Материалы конферен-ции, проходившей в Куйбышеве 19-20 июня 1990 г. Куйбышевский пед.ин-т, Куйбышев, 1990."
    Покрасс М.Л. "Методика психотерапевтической работы с подростками с творческой направленностью". В сб."Учебно-мето-дические материалы по курсу "Развитие творческих способнос-тей". Куйбышев, 1990.
    Покрасс М.Л. Терапия поведением. /Методика для активного психотерапевта и для всех, ищущих выхода./ - Самара: Издательский Дом "Бахрах", 1997, - 240с. (тогда была в печати ).
    Метод психологического анализа "без анализа" и нравственно-психологический возраст общества. - В кн.: Российское сознание: психология, культура, политика: Материалы II Международной конференции по исторической психологии российского сознания "Провинциальная ментальность России в прошлом и будущем" (4-6 июля 1997 г., Самара). Самара: Изд-во СамГПУ, 1997, 437 с.
    Покрасс М.Л. Залог возможности существования. /Четвертая категория психологии./ - Самара: Издательский Дом "Бахрах", 1997, - 456с. (тогда была в печати ).
    Покрасс М.Л. Комплекс Наины и другие проблемы российской эмансипантки. - В кн.: А.С. Пушкин и Российское историко-культурное сознание. Провинциальная ментальность России в прошлом, настоящем и будущем. Материалы III Международной конференции по исторической психологии российского сознания (17-19 мая 1999 г., г. Самара). Самара: Изд-во Самарского государственного педагогического университета, 1999, 380 с. (Ежегодник Российского Психологического Общества. Том 5, выпуск 1)
    Каган М.С. "Мир общения". М.:Политиздат, 1988.
    Покрасс М.Л. Активная тоска (в печати ).
    Покрасс М.Л./ Pokrass M. "Therapie durch Verhalten " (Pokrass). In-: Lauterbach W. "Psychotherapie in der Sowjetu-nion". Munchen, Wien, Baltimore: Urban und Schwarzenberg, 1978.     . Пришвин М., "О творческом поведении".М., "Советская Россия, 1969.
    Rogers,C "Client centered therapy". Boston, 1951.

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